Accurate field measurements from inventories across fine spatial scales are critical to improve sampling designs and to increase the precision of forest carbon cycling modeling. By studying soils undisturbed from active forest management, this paper gives a unique insight in the naturally occurring variability of organic layer C and provides valuable references against which subsequent and future sampling schemes can be evaluated. We found that the organic layer C stocks displayed great short-range variability with spatial autocorrelation distances ranging from 0.86 up to 2.85 m. When spatial autocorrelations are known, we show that a minimum of 20 inventory samples separated by ∼5 m is needed to determine the organic layer C stock with a precision of ±0.5 kg C m−2. Our data also demonstrates a strong relationship between the organic layer C stock and horizon thickness (R 2 ranging from 0.58 to 0.82). This relationship suggests that relatively inexpensive measurements of horizon thickness can supplement soil C sampling, by reducing the number of soil samples collected, or to enhance the spatial resolution of organic layer C mapping.
Full text: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10661-015-4741-x
Omnidirectional Mantel correlogram showing the strength of the spatial correlation between organic layer C and horizon thickness for soil cores within different distance classes (at 1000 permutations). Points are plotted at the midpoint of each distance class. Bins with less than 25 pairs were excluded from the analysis. Solid circles represent significant correlations, while open circles show correlations that are not significantly different from zero. At the distance where the plotted lines approach the x-intercept (red dotted line) objects are no more similar than that expected by-chance-alone across the plot.
Posted in Statistics
Tagged autocorrelation, biology, boreal, carbon, data, ecology, environment, forest, Geostatistics, lidar, norway, nugget, range, research, sampling, statistics, variability
According to the magazine New Statesman: Suarez’s bite rate of three in 441 matches means we can expect him to take a bite out of someone every 147 matches, but if we assume that there are 14 players at risk of being bitten (that’s 11 starting players and assuming three substitutes come on) that means Suarez has bitten three players out of the 6,160 who have lined up against him in his professional career. We can therefore conclude that Luis Suarez has roughly a one in 2,000 chance of biting any individual opposition player. The chances to get bitten by a shark while swimming in the ocean is one in 3.7 million.
Highly questionable statistics, but fun anyways!
Nuggets like this deserves to resurface. Caleb Mason’s legal review of Jay Z’s “99 Problems”. Published in the Saint Louis University Law Journal. Available as a PDF here. A great read!
Here’s a sample: “Well, my glove compartment is locked, so is the trunk and the back / And I know my rights so you go’n need a warrant for that”:
If this Essay serves no other purpose, I hope it serves to debunk, for any readers who persist in believing it, the myth that locking your trunk will keep the cops from searching it. Based on the number of my students who arrived at law school believing that if you lock your trunk and glove compartment, the police will need a warrant to search them, I surmise that it’s even more widespread among the lay public. But it’s completely, 100% wrong.
The melting-pot nation loses Sunderland striker Jozy Altidore, whose parents were born in Haiti; Tim Howard, whose mother is Hungarian; AZ striker Aron Johannsson, who was born to Icelandic parents in Alabama; and Rosenborg Trondheim midfielder Mix Diskerud, who was born in Norway. We’ll also take away LA Galaxy defender Omar Gonzalez, whose parents were born in Mexico, and Nantes midfielder Alejandro Bedoya, whose father was born in Colombia. Finally, we’ll take back Hertha defender John Brooks, Nurnberg defender Timmy Chandler, Bayern Munich winger Julian Green, Besiktas midfielder Jermaine Jones, and 1899 Hoffenheim defender Fabian Johnson — all of whom were born in Germany or have a German parent.Team USA gets to keep San Jose Earthquakes striker Chris Wondolowski — half Native American, with a grandfather from Poland — as well as Seattle Sounders midfielder Clint Dempsey and Stoke City defender Geoff Cameron.
Full article in Global post: http://www.globalpost.com/dispatch/news/regions/americas/140610/world-cup-winners-and-losers-no-immigration-cup
Wall Street Journal:http://online.wsj.com/articles/at-the-world-cup-citizenship-becomes-a-complicated-issue-1401403912
Posted in Sports
Tagged Altidore, Brazil, FIFA, Football, Foreigners, Germany, Immigrants, kagawa, Mix Diskerud, National team, pro athlete, professional athletes, Right wing, Soccer, Team USA, World Cup 2014
Abstract: Pseudomature behavior—ranging from minor delinquency to precocious romantic involvement—is widely viewed as a nearly normative feature of adolescence. When such behavior occurs early in adolescence, however, it was hypothesized to reflect a misguided overemphasis upon impressing peers and was considered likely to predict long-term adjustment problems. In a multimethod, multireporter study following a community sample of 184 (eds. my highlight) adolescents from ages 13 to 23, early adolescent pseudomature behavior was linked cross-sectionally to a heightened desire for peer popularity and to short-term success with peers. Longitudinal results, however, supported the study’s central hypothesis: Early adolescent pseudomature behavior predicted long-term difficulties in close relationships, as well as significant problems with alcohol and substance use, and elevated levels of criminal behavior.
Allen et al. 2014.What Ever Happened to the “Cool” Kids? Long-Term Sequelae of Early Adolescent Pseudomature Behavior. Child development.
Now if we could generalize anything from a sample size of only 184, I know one guy who is in trouble. Probably one of the coolest teenagers in the world right now, Brazil’s Neymar. Expect relationship difficulties, alcohol and substance abuse.
I’ll admit this Neymar penalty is pretty cool: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tSOEJLRO52E